Max Born (1882–1970)
Max Born is born in Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland) the son of an anatomy professor. He studies in Breslau, Heidelberg, Zurich and Göttingen, where he receives his doctorate in 1906. After further stations in Cambridge, Breslau and Göttingen, he receives a professorship at the Berlin University in 1914 where he becomes friends with Einstein. Born is appointed ordinary professor for theoretical physics in Göttingen in 1920. He plays a primary role in Göttingen becoming one of the centers for fundamental work on the creation and use of quantum mechanics. In 1926 he formulates quantum mechanical statistical analysis, for which Born will receive the Nobel Prize much later, in 1954. Born is forced to emigrate in 1933 due to his Jewish heritage. He receives a professorship in 1936 in Edinburgh and, after his retirement in 1953 returns to Germany. In his final years, he is active proponent of peace and disarmament.