Mikrowelt: Bose-Einstein-Kondensat/Photonenstatistik

Mikrowelt: Bose-Einstein-Kondensat/Photonenstatistik

Branching Point:

Quantum Chaos

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In the old quantum theory ...

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On the applicability of Bohr's atomic model ...

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An extension of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum condition ...

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In a note added in proof of his 1917 article ...

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Chaotic dynamics

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Sensible Dependence on Initial Conditions

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Fixpoint Attractor

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Limit Cycle

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Torus Attractor

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Strange Attractor

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Classical Chaos

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Rydberg Atoms ...

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The Quantum Mechanical Picture ...

Bose-Einstein Condensation
Temperature is a mearure of microscopic motion. A gas close to absolute zero temperature consists of almost immobile particles. It condenses, in a sense like atmospheric moisture in a room at the window-pane or at dust particles.

The distinction: at a billionth part of a degree the particles condense mutually, in a way; they do no longer need an interface or condensation nuclei for it - and they do it for quantum mechanical reasons. The figure shows a simulation where more and more particles accumulate near the state of rest.

Bose-Einstein-Condensates, as these coldest gases of the universe are coined, are artificial products. The space, at about 2.73 degrees, is much too warm so as to allow them to freely exist.

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