Wissenschaft am Abgrund: Weltkrieg und Revolution
The War of Minds
Appeal “To the Civilized World!,” October 1914, reproduction
The document initiated by the writers Ludwig Fulda and Hermann Sudermann, and signed by 93 scholars and intellectuals, has grave consequences for international academic relations. In this document the authors deny German war atrocities in Belgium and identify themselves unreservedly with the German military. Intellectual fronts have formed in Europe, on which natural scientists take their place along with the other members of the countries’ educated elites.